ICMP is a required element to implement Internet Protocol. ICMP is a control protocol which means that it does not carry any application data, but data about the status of the network itself. ICMP is used to report:

– Errors in the core communications of the network applications
– Availability of remote hosts
– Network traffic and congestion

Technical details:

Internet control message protocol is part of the Internet protocol suite as defined in RFC 792. ICMP messages are generated in response to errors in IP (as specified in RFC 1122) or for diagnostic or routing purposes.

ICMP messages are generated at the IP layer. Though ICMP messages are transferred within normal IP datagrams, ICMP messages are usually processed as a special case, different from the usual IP processing. In many scenarios, it is essential to inspect the data contained in the ICMP message and output the correct error message to the application which generated the original IP packet.
Many commonly used network utilities are based on ICMP messages:

The best known example of using ICMP is the ping function, which uses ICMP to query remote hosts for response and overall server latency. The ping function is implemented using the ICMP “Echo request” and “Echo reply” commands.

ICMP also supports the traceroute command, which is used to identify intermediate jumps between a given client and server. The trace route command is implemented by transmitting UDP datagrams with specially set IP header fields, while looking for the total time taken for the response to reach the original transmitter.

How To Make An LED Lightbulb Glow With Vinegar

How to Make an LED Lightbulb Glow With Vinegar

All vinegar, regardless of the grade or flavorings, contains acetic acid. Food grade vinegar generally contains five percent acid. This amount is weak enough to be considered safe for consumption, but strong enough to be used to power small items, such as a watch battery or LED bulb. When combined with the right materials, it’s possible to produce a small, makeshift battery in a matter of minutes.

Instructions 1 Pour ? cup of vinegar into a bowl. Add 2 tsp. of salt and stir until the salt dissolves. If all of the salt does not dissolve, add a little more vinegar.

2 Cut five pieces of aluminum foil and five pieces of blotter paper to the same size as a US quarter. Blotter paper can be found at art stores and some beauty supply stores.

3.Put the five pieces of aluminum foil, the five pieces of blotter paper and five US quarters in the vinegar solution. Allow the materials to soak for at least five minutes so they can soak up the acid from the vinegar.

4 Lay one of the quarters down on a flat surface. Place a sheet of the blotter paper on top of the quarter, followed by a sheet of the aluminum foil. These three pieces make a single battery cell. Continue this stacking pattern until all of the materials are stacked up, which makes five complete cells. Five cells produces just enough energy to illuminate the LED.

5 Hold the positive lead of an LED bulb against the positive side of the battery — the bottom quarter. Hold the negative lead against the negative side of the battery — the top piece of aluminum foil. The LED should instantly light up upon contact with the vinegar batteries.

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Major Components

All video cameras contain 3 major components – the
lens, imager, and recorder. The lens gathers and
focuses the light on the imager, which is normally
a charge coupled device (CCD) or CMOS sensor IC.
Finally, the recorder will encode the video signal
into a form that can be stored. Commonly, the optics
and imager are known as the camera section.

The optic lens is the first component in the camera
section’s light path. The optics normally have one
or more the following adjustments:
1. aperture – controls the amount of light
2. zoom – controls the field of view
3. shutter speed – captures continuous motion
In most consumer units, these adjustments are
automatically controlled by the video camera’s
electronics, normally to maintain constant exposure
onto the imager.

The imager is the “eye” of the camera, housing a
photo sensitive device or devices. The imager works
to convert light into an electronic video signal
through an elaborate electronic process. The
camera lens projects an image to the imager surface,
exposing the photo sensitive array to the light.

The light exposure is then converted into an electrical
charge. Towards the end of the timed exposure, the
imager will convert the accumulated charge into a
continuous analog voltage at the imager’s output

The third piece, the recorder, is responsible for
writing the video signal to a recording medium,
such as magnetic videotape. The recording function
involves many steps of signal processing, and
historically, the recording process introduced
some distortion and noise to the stored video,
such that the playback of stored signal may not
retain the same detail as the original live feed.

All but the most primitive of video cameras will
also need to have a recorder controlling section
which will allow you to control the camera. You
can also swich the recorder into playback mode
for reviewing your recorded footage.

The image you recorded doesn’t need to be limited
to what appeared in the view finder. For a
documentation of events such as those used by the
police, the fields of view will overlay such
things as the time and date of the recording along
the top and bottom of the image.

As you can probably tell now, a high definition
video camera is very complex indeed. There are
several other parts involved as well, although the
above are the most important. A HD video camera
is very complex in build, making it something
that is more than worth the time it takes to create.

Steps In Installing Rack Mount LCD Monitors

Rack mount LCD monitors can save you a lot of space and help you form a convenient and efficient desktop for your work or home study. The rack mount is set up so that the keyboard and LCD monitor are on a sliding rack that lest you move them out from your desk or over it. Once you decide to invest in the rack mount LCD monitor, you will have to install the rack and the monitor. Here, then, are steps in installing rack mount LCD monitors.

The first step in installing rack mount LCD monitors is to get out and get one. They are available at most any home office or electronics store. Since the rack mounts are becoming more popular, they are easier to find now then aver before. Once you have your set, bring it home and spread all of the parts out along with the instructions so you can find what you need.

The first step will be to install the slides on your desk. Some rack mounting sets will include slides that are handed. That means that each slide is assigned a side of the monitor rack, but there are also sets where either slide can go on either side. Consult the instructions with your set to make sure you have mounted them correctly.

Next of the steps in installing rack mount LCD monitors is to hook up the cable bracket if your set has one. The cable bracket will keep the computer cables from being tangled up in the apparatus of your rack mount. Generally these will go to the rear of the entire mount system.

Third, you will likely be required to install the fixed mounts. These are what will keep the apparatus stable and secure with your computer monitor in it. Follow directions carefully so that you can be sure to get everything installed tightly. This is what will keep your monitor safe, so double check all screws and studs. They will connect to the system which will then connect to the slides you installed to begin with.

Once that is all installed, it is time to get your LCD monitor put into the rack mount. This will allow you to slide your monitor and keyboard in and out from the desk. Overall it will save you a great deal of space. Make sure you carefully follow the directions and precautions contained in them. That will keep your equipment safe and your system stable. Once installed, you will be able to start using everything immediately.

Knowing the basic steps in installing rack mount LCD monitors will give you a head start when you go to install yours. You will be able to easily slide your monitor and keyboard in and out saving space and making you more comfortable. Once you get used to it, you will be in love with your rack mounted LCD monitor. Just make sure you follow directions carefully and double check every step of your installation. Before you know it, you will have a rack mounted LCD monitor ready to go.